The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe


1.Write a note on:

a) Guiseppe Mazzini

Answer:

During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme for the unitary

Italian Republic. He had also formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his

goals.

b) Count Camillo de Cavour

Answer:

1. Led the movement to unify Italy

2. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat.

3. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance engineered by Cavour, Sardini-Piedmont succeeding in

defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.



c) The Greek war of independence

Answer:

1. Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century. The growth of

revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence amongst the

Greeks which began in 1821.

2. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation and mobilised public

opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire

3. Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many West

Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture

4. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation

d) Frankfurt parliament

Answer:

1. It was an all-German National assembly formed by Middle-Class professionals, businessmen,

and prosperous Artisans belonging to different German regions.

2. It was convened on 18 May 1848.

3. It was disbanded on 31 May 1849 as it lost support.

e) The role of women in nationalist struggles

Answer:

1. Women of the liberal middle classes combined their demands for constitutionalism with national

unification. They took advantage of the growing popular unrest to push their demands for the

creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles – a constitution, freedom of the press and

freedom of association.

2. Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in

political meetings and demonstrations.

2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among
the French people?

Answer:

1. The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a

united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution

2. A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard

3. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the

nation.

4. A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all

citizens within its territory.

5. Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and

measures was adopted.

6. Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became

the common language of the nation

7. The revolutionaries further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation

to liberate the peoples of Europe from despotism, in other words, to help other peoples of

Europe to become nations

3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were
portrayed?

Answer:

Female allegories were invented by artists in the nineteenth century to represent the nation.

1. Marianne, a popular Christian name - underlined the idea of a people’s nation

2. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the

tricolour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public

of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it

3. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps

Germania became the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, Germania wears a

crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.

4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.

Answer:


1. Nationalist sentiments were often mobilised by conservatives for promoting state power and

achieving political domination over Europe. This can be observed in the process by which

Germany and Italy came to be unified as nation-states

2. Middle-class Germans tried to unite the different regions of German Confederation, but their

plans were not materialised due to actions of large landowners called Junkers of Prussia. Three

wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark, and France ended in a Prussian victory. In Jan

1871, Prussian King William I was proclaimed German emperor.

3. Importance was given to modernising the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems in

Germany.’

5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the
territories ruled by him?

Answer:

The Civil Code of 1804 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on

birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to

the regions under French control. In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany,

Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from

serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed. Transport and

communication systems were improved. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed

new-found freedom. Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods, in particular, began to realise

that uniform law, standardised weights and measures, and a common national currency would facilitate

the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.

Discuss:

1. Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social
and economic ideas supported by the liberals?

Answer:

1. Parallel to the revolts of the poor, unemployed and starving peasants and workers in many

European countries in the year 1848, a revolution led by the educated middle classes was

underway. Events of February 1848 in France had brought about the abdication of the monarch

and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed

2. In other parts of Europe where independent nation-states did not yet exist – such as Germany,

Italy, Poland, the Austro-Hungarian Empire – men and women of the liberal middle classes

combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification

3. They took advantage of the growing popular unrest to push their demands for the creation of a

nation-state on parliamentary principles – a constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of

association.

4. The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal

movement, in which large numbers of women had participated actively over the years. Women

had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political

meetings and demonstrations


2. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in
Europe.

Answer:

Language:

Played a very important role. After the Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of

schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. Clergy in Poland began using language

as a weapon of national resistance. Polish was used for Church gatherings and all religious instruction.

The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance.

Romanticism:

It was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic

artists and poets generally criticised the glorification of reason and science and focussed instead on

emotions, intuition and mystic feelings. They tried to portray a common cultural past as the basis of a

nation.

Folk poetry, folk dance, folk songs:

The true spirit of the nation was popularised through the above means. So collecting and recording

these forms of folk culture was an essential part of nation-building.

3. Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth
century.

Answer:

Focus countries - Germany and Italy.

Germany

4. Nationalist sentiments were often mobilised by conservatives for promoting state power and

achieving political domination over Europe. This can be observed in the process by which Germany

and Italy came to be unified as nation-states

5. Middle-class Germans tried to unite the different regions of German Confederation, but their

plans were not materialised due to actions of large landowners called Junkers of Prussia. Three wars

over seven years with Austria, Denmark, and France ended in a Prussian victory. In Jan 1871, Prussian

King William I was proclaimed German emperor.

6. Importance was given to modernising the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems in

Germany.’

Italy


7. During 1830’s Mazzini sought to unify Italy, had formed a secret society called Young Italy. It

had failed hence the responsibility fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler King Victor Emmanuel II to

unify Italian states through war.

8. Austrian forces were defeated in 1859, apart from Sardinia-Piedmont large number of

volunteers had joined the cause under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi, in 1860, they marched to

South Italy and managed to defeat Spanish rulers. In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of

Italy.

4. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?

Answer:

1. Formation of the nation-state was not due to sudden upheaval or revolution. It was the result of

a long-drawn-out process.

2. The primary identities of people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones such as

English, Welsh, Scot or Irish.

3. The Act of Union between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the United

Kingdom of Great Britain. Scottish people were forbidden from speaking their Gaelic language,

and from wearing their national dress. Many were driven out of their homeland.

4. Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the UK in 1801. This was achieved by English helping the

Protestants of Ireland to establish dominance over the Catholics.

5. The symbols of the new Britain - the British flag (Union Jack), the national anthem (God save

our Noble King), the English language were actively promoted and the older nations survived

only as subordinate partners in this union.

5. Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?

Answer:

1. It was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria,

Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia, and Montenegro

who were broadly known as Slavs.

2. A large part was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. Gradually independence was

declared from them.

3. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with disintegration of

the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.