Forest and Wildlife Resources

Forest and Wildlife Resources
Forest and Wildlife Resources

1. Multiple choice questions.

(i) Which of these statements is not a valid reason for the depletion of flora and fauna?

(a) Agricultural expansion.

(b) Large scale developmental projects.

(c) Grazing and fuelwood collection.

(d) Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation.


Grazing and fuelwood collection

(ii) Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community

(a) Joint forest management

(b) Beej Bachao Andolan

(c) Chipko Movement

(d) Demarcation of Wildlife sanctuaries


Demarcation of wildlife sanctuaries

2. Match the following animals with their category of existence.

Animals/Plants                             Category of existence

Black Buck                                    Extinct

Asiatic Elephant                            Rare

Andaman wild pig                        Endangered

Himalayan Brown Bear                Vulnerable

Pink Head Duck                           Endemic


Animals/Plants                           Category of existence

Black Buck                                 Endangered

Asiatic Elephant                         Vulnerable

Andaman wild pig                      Endemic

Himalayan Brown Bear             Rare

Pink Head Duck                        Extinct

3. Match the following.

Reserved Forests               Other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private

                                           individuals and communities

Protected Forests               Forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest

                                           and wildlife resources

Unclassed Forests             Forest lands are protected from any further depletion


Reserved Forests              Forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and                                            wildlife resources

Protected Forests               Forest lands are protected from any further depletion 

Unclassed Forests            Other forests and wastelands belonging to both Government and private                                                   individuals and communities

4. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) What is biodiversity? Why is biodiversity important for human lives?


Biodiversity is made up of various types of life forms found on earth. It is a measure of variation at the

ecosystem, species, and genetic level. Biodiversity is abundant in Tropical areas. Tropical areas cover

10 per cent of earth surface but it hosts 90% of the world species.

Contribution of biodiversity in human lives

1. Agriculture - Variety of Plant species meet our needs for food.

2. Their contribution to business and industry

3. Leisurely activities

4. Ecological services

(ii) How have human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna? Explain


1. Various river valley projects have affected the flora and fauna

2. Many illegal Mining projects have depleted the flora and fauna

3. Too many development projects for leisure activities in the forests have negatively affected.

4. Too many human activities in the forest area due to rising population and lack of space has

created human-animal conflict.

5. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India?


Chipko Movement:

The famous Chipko movement in the Himalayas has not only successfully resisted deforestation in

several areas but has also shown that community afforestation with indigenous species can be

enormously successful.

Certain societies revere a particular tree which they have preserved from time immemorial. The

Mundas and the Santhal of Chota Nagpur region worship mahua (Bassia latifolia) and kadamba

(Anthocaphalus cadamba) trees, and the tribals of Odisha and Bihar worship the tamarind (Tamarindus

indica) and mango (Mangifera indica) trees during weddings. To many of us, peepal and banyan trees

are considered sacred.

In Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, villagers have fought against mining by citing the Wildlife

Protection Act. In many areas, villagers themselves are protecting habitats and explicitly rejecting

government involvement. The inhabitants of five villages in the Alwar district of Rajasthan have

declared 1,200 hectares of forest as the Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’, declaring their own set of rules

and regulations which do not allow hunting and are protecting the wildlife against any outside


(ii) Write a note on good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife.


In India, joint forest management (JFM) programme furnishes a good example for involving local

communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests. The programme has been in

formal existence since 1988 when the state of Odisha passed the first resolution for joint forest

management. JFM depends on the formation of local (village) institutions that undertake protection

activities mostly on degraded forest land managed by the forest department. In return, the members of

these communities are entitled to intermediary benefits like nontimber forest produces and share in the

timber harvested by ‘successful protection’. The clear lesson from the dynamics of both environmental

destruction and reconstruction in India is that local communities everywhere have to be involved in

some kind of natural resource management. But there is still a long way to go before local communities

are at the centre stage in decision-making. Accept only those economic or developmental activities,

that are people-centric, environment-friendly and economically rewarding