Agriculture

Agriculture
Agriculture


1. Multiple choice questions.

(i) Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area?

(a) Shifting Agriculture (b) Plantation Agriculture (c) Horticulture (d) Intensive Agriculture

Answer:

Plantation agriculture

(ii) Which one of the following is a rabi crop?

(a) Rice (c) Millets (b) Gram (d) Cotton

Answer:

Gram

(iii) Which one of the following is a leguminous crop?

(a) Pulses (c) Millets (b) Jawar (d) Sesamum

Answer:

Pulses

2. Answer the following questions in 30 words.



(i) Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its
growth.

Answer:

One important beverage crop is tea.

The tea plant grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates endowed with deep and fertile welldrained soil, rich in humus and organic matter. Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all

through the year. Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure continuous growth of

tender leaves. Tea is a labour-intensive industry. It requires abundant, cheap and skilled labour. Tea is

processed within the tea garden to restore its freshness.

(ii) Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.

Answer:

Rice is a major staple crop of India.

It is grown in the following regions.

1. Plains of North

2. North East India

3. Coastal Areas

4. Deltaic Regions

(iii) Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the
interest of farmers.

Answer:

Various institutional reform programmes introduced by the Government are

1. MSP (Minimum Support Price)

2. Subsidy on Fertilisers

3. Crop insurance

4. Establishment of Grameen banks to provide low-interest loans

(iv) The land under cultivation has got reduced day by day. Can you imagine its consequences?

Answer:

1. Shortage of food

2. The rise in prices of food

3. Imports increase will put stress on the economy

4. Rise in Unemployment

3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

(i) Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.

Answer:

The Government of India embarked upon introducing agricultural reforms to improve Indian agriculture

in the 1960s and 1970s. The Green Revolution based on the use of package technology and the White

Revolution (Operation Flood) were some of the strategies initiated to improve a lot of Indian agriculture.

But, this too led to the concentration of development in a few selected areas. Therefore, in the 1980s

and 1990s, a comprehensive land development programme was initiated, which included both

institutional and technical reforms. Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and

disease, the establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan

facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest were some important steps in this direction. Kissan

Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) are some other schemes introduced

by the Government of India for the benefit of the farmers. Moreover, special weather bulletins and

agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on the radio and television. The government also 

announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check

the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.

(ii) Describe the impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture.

Answer:

Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. It was there at the time of colonisation. In the nineteenth

century when European traders came to India, at that time too, Indian spices were exported to different

countries of the world and farmers of south India were encouraged to grow these crops. Till today it is

one of the important items of export from India. Under globalisation, particularly after 1990, the farmers

in India have been exposed to new challenges. Despite being an important producer of rice, cotton,

rubber, tea, coffee, jute and spices our agricultural products are not able to compete with the developed

countries because of the highly subsidised agriculture in those countries. Today, Indian agriculture finds

itself at the crossroads. To make agriculture successful and profitable, proper thrust should be given to

the improvement of the condition of marginal and small farmers.

(iii) Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of rice.

Answer:

The tea plant grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates endowed with deep and fertile welldrained soil, rich in humus and organic matter. Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all

through the year. Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure continuous growth of

tender leaves. Tea is a labour-intensive industry. It requires abundant, cheap and skilled labour. Tea is

processed within the tea garden to restore its freshness