CLASS 12TH THEMES IN INDIAN HISTORY NCERT PDF

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In this ARTICLE we will study about Women

related 

Reform Movement


But before that we will understand two main

terms.

Empowerment & Emancipation.

Empowerment of women: Refers to giving rights

to women equal to that of men.

Emancipation of women: Refers to saving women

from inhuman practices prevalent in the society

such as
CLASS 12TH THEMES IN INDIAN HISTORY NCERT PDF
CLASS 12TH THEMES IN INDIAN HISTORY NCERT PDF


Sati system.


Major social Reformers and Organizations who


contributed in the improvement of status of

women:

1.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy propagated message for

abolition of Sati.

On account of his efforts, British passed

Bengal Sati Regulation Act in 1829.

2.

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar propagated message

of widow remarriage.

On account of his efforts, Hindu Widow’s

Remarriage Act was passed in 1856 which legalized


widow remarriage.

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar also wrote a book


titled Bahuvivah to promote his message.

3.

Keshub Chandra Sen: On account of his efforts,

first time anti-child marriage act was passed.

The Act was revised number of times before

independence.

Finally, the Act was revised in 1929 on account

of the efforts of Harbilas Sarda.

Thus, the Child Marriage Restraint Act was

popularly called Sarda Act.

He also published the first exclusive female

magazine in India by name of Bamabodhini Patrika.

4.

Pandita Rama Bai founded Sharda Sadan and

Mukti Sharda Sadan.

Sharda Sadan for the education and support

of widows and other women.

Mukti Sharda Sadan was started to provide

shelter to child widows and destitute women

and Kripa Sadan was established for women

involved in prostitution.

She also founded Arya Mahila Samaj to promote

women education and prevent child marriages.

5.

Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddi was the first woman


legislator of India.

She was appointed to Madras Legislative Council

in the year of 1927.

Bills to abolish Devdasi system, Immoral Trafficking

of girls, Cruelty to children, raising the

age of marriage etc. were enacted into laws

entirely due to her efforts.

She started home for orphans at Chennai.

Movement for Female Education:

There were 3 important movements for education

of women.

1.

John Elliot Drinkwater Bethune who was pioneer


of female education in India.

He founded Hindu Balika Vidyalaya in Bengal

in 1849, popularly known as Bethune school

located in Kolkata.

It was established as a college in 1879.

It is the oldest women's college in Asia.

2.

Dhondo Keshav Karve established first female

university in India at Pune in 1916.

Later on, University was shifted to Bombay

as SNDT Indian Women’s University.

3.

Arya Samaj: Established Arya Kanya Pathshala


in Jalandhar to promote education among females.

Arya Kanya Pathshala was converted into Kanya

Mahavidyalaya to provide higher education

to females.

Now let us revise what we have learnt.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy propagated the message

for abolition of Sati.

Widow remarriage was legalized on account

of efforts of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.

Anti-child marriage act was passed due to

the efforts of Keshub Chandra Sen.

Widow Homes were founded by Pandita Rama Bai.

Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddi, first women legislator,

helped in abolishing devdasi system.

Hindu Balika Vidyalaya was founded by John

Elliot Drinkwater Bethune at Kolkata.

1st female university was established by Dhondo

Keshav Karve at Pune.

Kanya Mahavidyala was established by Arya

Samaj.

Now.

Let us evaluate ourselves.

Q1.

An important landmark in the history of women’s

empowerment in Bengal was the passage of Bengal
Anti-sati Act.


Who among the following was major reformer

associated with this act?

Raja Ram Mohan Roy

J.E.D Bethune

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

Raja Baidyanath Roy

The correct answer (a).

Q2.

Consider the following statement:

Keshab Chandra Sen supported:

Anti-child marriage

Empowerment of women

Caste system.

Which of the statements given above is/are

correct?

Keshab Chandra Sen supported empowerment of

system but he opposed caste system.

Hence, the correct answer is (b).

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