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welcome again we'll start ARTICLE with NCERT

class seven the first chapter that is

chasing changes for thousand years now

before we begin with in the classics

history that we were talking about we

mainly focused on ancient India the

whole volume for the cloud seven would

focus on medieval India so our idea

would be a kind of transition how that

occurred from the ancient India to the

medieval India so in this chapter we

would find a former kind of background

to help understand the various kingdoms

that arrived during the medieval period

now during the medieval times there was

the art of mapmaking which is known as

cartography which became prevalent as a

result there were various maps that were

designed one of the most famous masks

were given by illiteracy he was an arab

geographer his maps were very precise

and considered up to nearly three

centuries but one of the interesting

parts about his math world that is math

word upside-down that means Sri Lanka on

the top and India on the bottom if I

want to explain in that way and also his

mask was good because there was a

smaller section that was is depicted on

a bigger map so those were some of the

advantages of a literacies map and this

was another important thing in his maps

where there was no imagery or kind of

texts that were used rather he was

trying to portray the real physical

geography of the region after Alegre C

came the next French ographers so you

had the French of the first who came up

and one of the most important ones were

the June a Ahmadi is line and he gave

the Atlas Nubia this address talked

about the countries of Europe and later

on the newly discovered America so all

these maps mentioned some of the regions

of India on the Indian subcontinent and

what they try to do

was to help understand the economic and

the social life of the region and they

thought it became easier for the

invaders to come into our country

so this mark-making form the basis for

the various invaders to have an exact

idea about the region and once we have

an idea they can plan out the strategies

to reach the Indian subcontinent so for

example the fringe of the first the maps

that were given during that time data

and around 1720 mentioned kannada natha

Pradesh and these maps were used by

various european navigators and sailors

so all this form the background for the

origin of the medieval history liquid

scene now if we look over to the other

side of the picture the social are the

economic changes in the lifestyle were

very very crucial now when we talk about

the social life it was predominantly a

kind of forest feeling that Voltaire

which shifted slowly on geography

gradually to agriculture within the

agriculture then was filling of the land

that started so all these changes

occurred with a progress towards the

medieval history again if we want to

explain India itself there were

different terms used by different people

during the different times so you had

the medieval India and modern India

modern India we call India as India

however during medieval India - who

knows Hindustan then you have sorry Amir

Khusro who gave the word hills so there

were various words that we use which was

different from the present-day India for

example if we say foreigner today we

mean a person who does not belong to the

idea or the country India for us he

would be a foreigner but during that

time any person out

village or outside a given territory

would be considered as foreigner so

there are different meanings to

different terms during that time I mean

ours is Raj was one of the major leaders

who tried to explain the pressures P

which we talked about in class six

history pressures P was exact I know a

bit exaggeration of the real types so he

tried to explain that during the

medieval period the extent of Mohammed

went to Clark and Delhi Sultanate during

that time was from the region of Punjab

till bang call and you had the land

between Ganga and Yamuna that was all

covered during this period so that was a

kind of precious things that were done

during that period again how do we get

to know about the medieval times

there are various sources through which

we get to know about the medieval period

some of the major forces includes the

point the medieval point the

inscriptions during that time the

architecture that we could see then are

the textual records not actually force

or something that is inscribed

now that the changing conditions paper

has become cheaper however it was a main

kind of mainly equals inscriptions

during a medieval period and menu

scripts now manuscripts are those

handwritten records given by the rulers

or the major court people of the ruler

during that time but there was an

important thing which was which is to be

understood here is this crime now if

client is a person who is a corpus that

means he copies what is written in the

original manuscript now when I am

reading a text and I am unable to

understand certain parts of it what

would happen I myself use the words in

between based on my knowledge or

my information so what would happen was

the additional tax which was there was

slowly and gradually getting deformed

and deformed so when they were scribes

they were writing down the manuscripts

they were copying down the manuscripts

but what's happened during this period

walls they were drastic changes in the

original manuscript and changes occur to

an extent that there was kind of real we

could say our kind of anomalous change

in the original manuscript so one of

which famous manuscript was Banshee out

in Boerne I his manuscripts were written

in around 1350 six however they were

fine found in library only 1971 least

copies were lost somewhere in the

libraries so this was something very

very important again during that time

there was no printing press so all the

information that was written by was

mainly by hands however there were

archives archives were the places where

they used to store the big manuscripts

that they had written now writings were

in different fashions so much mystical

art she cos they were the two common

writing styles much cotton was a kind of

cursive writing which was easier to

decipher however she Kosta was much more

dense and difficult to understand now

there are some innovation psychics place

during that period as we saw there were

changes in the life size so you had the

chorus - I will change to agricultural

lifestyle and new things coming up so

what was happening during that time

during that time you were witnessing

certain changes in the social and

economic life and

in the form of Persian beans which were

now used for irrigation

you had a spinning wheels which was used

for weaving so after the invention of

means the popularization of bees in two

different aspects gained importance then

there were firearms that were used for

combat methods and new crops that were

you seen mainly potato Pont aeri tea and

coffee these are the new crops that were

discovered amongst the social groups

there were various new social groups

that were formed like rush foods as he

hired a home maracas so these were small

groups that that gained momentum during

that period now even if we want to

understand the medieval period we can

broadly say there were three phases

first was the Hinduism or the space of

Hindus then the phase of Muslim dynasty

or the Muslim rulers the Delhi Sultanate

Sultanate when you add the two gloves

Mobile's all those coming up then

finally the brief it went of the British

Isles in India so these will be the

three major heads under which we would

be studying the medieval India as we'll

talk about with charts and the Hinduism

so there were two basic things that

originated first of all the concept or

the popularization of Hinduism believed

in a kind of supernatural agency known

as religion so the importance of

religion popped up then you had got a

movement that gained momentum during

during this time

idol worship worship of deities became

important and again construction of

temples were see

so that's including the Hindu period

during the whistles you had the rulers

that were coming the founder

region from the Middle East they thought

in the concept of Quran and you had

Aslam that was popularized so the role

of Allah got momentum and Islam walls

slowly and gradually spin so you have

the kg so gloves Mughals Delhi Sultanate

so all this was a kind of period of

Muslim invasion then you had finally the

Britishers the advent of Britishers and

in India so these will be the three

broad things that we would be studying

under the face of medieval again there

were few major things first as we said

was the social and economic change that

occurred so there were small societies

that come up that came up after them

over the invention invasion of too close

there was kind of the country was broken

down into regional groups or small

regional groups came into predominance

there was reasons that that were

important again regional societies were

formed for small regions developed up as

we said are each region has its own

Society so these were some of the key

characteristics of that time now social

discrimination started to begin social

differentiation occurred by means of

dirty so what happened in the villages

was establishment of judged upon science

at the top each had their own rules each

30 was the kind of sub car and this was

maybe based either on occupation or on

the background of the family and the

jockey vintage or the village that time

was governed by a 15 now the National

expanse if we look onto this is also

regional expanse of Muhammad bin Tobias

so Muhammad's particular Charter Watson

fire during that time and these were

during this time there were some of the

precious peace what we say that were

made by Amir Khusro garage and in other

followers of the leader during that

and and they try to explain or glorify

the original exchange of the Empire so

that was again important then you had gr

soup in Baldwin who explained the Empire

existed from began and they eat sugars

Lee in Afghanistan and the wind and also

it included the parts of South India so

you had people on the border Andhra

Kerala Karnataka Maharashtra and Gujarat

who ultimately were convinced by the

ruler and this adopted to the ruler now

after the Mughal decline and there were

regional states that was brought up the

region was broken down into regional

States again now looking onto the

classification of Islam you have two

main traits when were filming another

version now here are the people who

believed in prophet son-in-law who was

elite I firmly believe in Khalifa now

eventually you had the school of law the

for school Allah Allah and then equal

known as method so you had Hanafi

Hanbali Ms Mackinaw and Shetty so these

were the four schools of law under Sony

of meet her office Hanafi and sheppy

were most important now there were kind

of minor differences in the way they

practice their religion so for example

50 used to be a force during the process

of during Salah and there a certain

others are playable

much earlier as compared to hanafi so

these were under the Imam and these were

the four different amount that they

followed then you had the categorization

or the classification under Shia

I'm under a Shia you have the therapy

Boras which were important and then

finally you have the chorus these were

the basic the classification under

so with this we cover the class on the

basis of understanding the medieval

period we'll start with a more topics on

medieval period in the upcoming lectures

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