Welcome back this would be our first article where we will be start with history from class-6 The first chapter focuses on what, where,how and when.Now these four elements which will be try to understand under the concept of history.Now let’s say the simple example we and our parents might be a familiar with the means of transport say airplane.Our grand grandparents might be a familiar with the means of transport let’s say trains and buses and our great grandfathers might be familiar with the a means of transports which would be let’s sayble a can’t So what had happened over the years over the years the means of transport has evolved and therefore in history whatever we study is basically the changes that take place with time so we call it the chronological changes that takes place or the temporal changes that take place so all kind of temporal variations be at related to any place any specific event you have any specific culture or so on would be a part in parcel of the concept of history.Now first concept as we will understand what.So when we say what we focus on what kind of clothes do you wear what kind of houses there what kind of food is available.So all these come under the question what that we study under history.So what kind of food taken by Harappan Civilization or what kind of food was grown by let’s say ejection.So all these would come under what.We can also say in simple terms that who don’t study the past are condemned to repeat it.That means let’s say why britishers invaded India if we are not aware of that we might do the similar mistake and that could be a similar advent of some another country into our territory So that’s the kind of idea why we need to know the past so that we are aware of it and we do not repeat the similar mistakes in the future.So that’s what the first integral part of the historical concept is what so we have all the basic essential amenities in our life that should be the part of what.Now where the second important question now before we understand the second important question where we have a simple code that helps in understand and gives us a much broader perspective on history.That explains history is studied in geographically and geographic is studied historically.That means let’s first talk about geography we have already covered the lectures on geography and we have seen how things evolved how the origin of the earth took place, how landforms evolved, how there were various continence perform.So, what we have trying to do.We are trying to see how they formed, how they evolved, how people love.So, what was the basic areas how cultures evolved so all those the idea of how would come under the geography is studied historically because we have seen the evolutionary patterns.And again, when we talk about history.history is studied geographically because we must know where the major kingdoms work,where the wars were start, what were the major trade centers is in the country what were the areas which were fortile.Again we must be able to understand the areas which were destroyed with and which were deserted so the areas which were destroyed were the major center for attraction and were the major centers for cultural development the areas let’s say the deserted area has been isolated since long so you have less a kind of history that would be found Incas very well understand the history of that region and how things change over that area Now let’s say in the area of Harrapan civilization we have civilizations of Kalibangan in Rajasthan we have Lothal In Gujarat so all these were the areas where in ancient time you have at review trees at ganga that were flowing so what was the major false this area was some times fertile and therefore you had a kind of well bestowed civilization in that area.Now when we understand the concept of where we will see where equar the sentence of food gatherers so you Have the tribal pockets or the forest pockets that was there so those would be the areas of food gathering and hunting.Then they have the areas which were let’s say the low hills of mountain region so youwould have the animal rearing practices that would be found then travel was an integral part of history as well as geography most of the ilance and quantinencw were discovered was a result of travel and that we study under the geography but again travel let to explanation of many kind of kingdoms so you have the ashtami that was performed that was the horse riding into the territory and wherever it travelled you have to hold territory that was required.So all those kind of events then you have Alexander who came from Greeks and invaded India so you have all those inventions that were result of the travel so again travel is integral part of history then as we said where the major was to place, where the major kingdoms were located so let’s say you have the ganga river that flows here you have the Jhelum river and the tributaries of Hindus that you have here.So, the reason surrounding the ganga river you had a Magadh kingdom and Magadh kingdom was the largest traditional kingdoms of that time.Again, you have industrially which been really four thousand seven hundred years ago.So you have industrially civilization which was that old then you have ganga civilizationor the regions close to ganga that developed around two thousand five hundred years ago.So, you have different time periods where civilization took place in the various areas.So that’s what we studied under where.The next is the names of India.So, India is d-rhyme from the word sindhu which is the Sanskrit word when Iranians and Greeks invaded India, they called India as hindus or indos and finally the name bharatcomes from Rigveda so the people in the north west who read Rigveda considered this regionas bharata.Now the next important question is how.So, we are understood word where, the next important question comes how.How can we find out what was in the ancient times.So there are three basic things that we go for.The first is the manuscripts that is the documents which are written by hand.Now to decipher the manuscripts the first important thing is you must be aware of that script.So let’s say in Egypt the rosetta area.You had three languages which hens simultaneously one was Greek and two other were Egyptians Now in that language you had l that means loyal.So you have to decipher what kind of language it is and these manuscripts in ancient times were return either on the bark of the birch trees or on the palm leaves and these palm leaves were type together most common languages in the Indian peninsula when we see was the Sanskrit, the Prakrit, and Tamil.So, most of the manuscripts you would find either in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Tamil.Now Sanskrit was the language of the scholarly.Prakrit was considered as a common man at that time.The next is inscriptions.the inscriptions are those which are engravements on the hard surface so it can be stone, itcan be metal, it can be a bet clay.So all kind of inscriptions that were seen were writing on the hard surface and these writings were again in form of some scripts this script could be either letters or signs that were used.And finally is archaeology.So Archeology is things that were made and used in the past.So let’s say if you are digging something and you find a kind of small pot or a piece of rock you can decipher what kind of utterances of people used to use what kind of living styles they had, what kind of bathing area, what kind of living area they had.So, all these are explored by archeologist so archeologist are the people who mainly exclude the areas and find out the results based on those Again, bones of the animals are important idea to find what people ate and this is again what is studied under archeology.So how is another important question?Now the life from the ancient time has differed for various segment of the people the lifeof the king was different from a trades man; a trader’s life was different from a life of a farmer.So, you had the different segments of life that has been studied for each and every civilization.So you have for every civilization you will see how kings and queens used to live, how the common man and the merchant used to live and how the farmers and the people who were engage and primary activity used to live again there were demarcated based on the availability as we said.So, history is studied geographically so based on the availability of resources let’s saythe people in Andaman were sell sufficient because they were producing their own food and using it However, at that time also the people in thecities were dependent on the rural area in terms of food supply.So, you had kind of reasons that were develop and there was geographical isolation that happened And finally, the last important is when.So whenever we talk about history most of you would say we have to learn only whichwar was held when.So it’s not about that but yes that is an integral part so when we say when we usually try to understand with the birth of Jesus so prior to birth of Jesus and after the birth of Jesus so when we say after the birth of Jesus we say it as ad.Ad is also known as CE or common era ad needs anno domino and before the birth of Jesus we call it BC or before cries before cries is also known as BCE before the common era.So we say common era and before the common era and we sometimes use the word bp thatis before present so these are the common subjects that we use about when.When is again important because we need to know and we learn to know how things had happen over the years and how the scenario has change.So this was a kind of pure introduction to understand the concept of history will be dealing with the rear chapters as we move forward with in history and the further classes


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