Hello Students... Today we are going to


Production And Management

Okay, ... Crop Production and Management,

The first question which

comes in our mind is that...

What is there this chapter what we are supposed to

study in this so STUDENTS, as you can see

the name itself suggests crop and

production like how the crops are

produced what are the different steps

which we follow or has to be followed

how it has to be managed and several

terms which is used in agriculture also

several instruments which are usually

used in agriculture now the second

question which comes in a mind is that

why we have to study this chapter so

this thing which I want to clear over

here that still our country is known as

agriculture based country around 70% of

our population is still directly or

indirectly joined or is linked with

agriculture and so we should know how of

what are the different steps or how the

crops or the food between which we eat

the grains which we have at a home

reaches to us so to start with children,

Actually we all eat food right we all

eat food okay, now let me ask you one thing that...

Why we eat food? What is the need of eating?

Okay and everybody knows the

answer also it is well known that we eat

food for several reasons

say for example to get energy

Okay, then maybe for growing for growth,

for lick to be alive okay, to be alive...

or maybe for repair of our body, for repair

of our body. Fifth I can take or I can say

for the proper functioning of the body.

proper functioning of the body okay. So,

these can be the reasons why we eat food

Okay now, First of all to get energy now

let me clear up at this point like

suppose if someone makes you sit without

giving food even for a day okay and then

he gives you many things many good

things are kept in front of you

maybe like a very interesting games new

videogame something like that but you

won't be able to play and like you won't

like rather to play you will ask for the

food why because without food we cannot

have any kind of energy because if we're

throwing even a small ball we need to

have energy within us and so the first

use, the first thing, first reason why we

have food is to get energy the second is

for growth obviously the children who do

not eat properly they suffer from one of

the other diseases and we can call them

even malnutrient okay that means for

growth, for proper growth of the

body it is very very essential to have

proper food now third is to be alive

very rightly said that if you want to be

alive if you want to be in this world if

you want your existence you

to have food that means to be alive now

how our body like one other time we get

you know one of the other like maybe

like small things cutting of the finger,

cutting of the nail, cutting of the small

cut we need to repair in general also

cells die for having uses in the body

for the formation of new cells for the

repair of a body again we need to have

food now again if when we have food when

we have proper energy then only the

various processes of our body can take

place may be respiration, maybe the other

things like growth I said excretion

whatever the circulation of your blood

nothing can function nothing can go


until and unless we have food. Okay So,

First topic is food and my question was, Why do

we need to have food? So here are the answers...

Why we need to have food. Now,

Second Question is...From where this food comes?

Okay, From where or I can also say

What are the sources? Okay, What are the

Sources of our food? Okay, whatever we eat either we get it from plants whatever we

are eating either it is coming from plants

or animals... Okay. Now, when we talk about

plants everybody know I know these are

very basic things Okay, what I can write

I can write Wheat I can write Maize, Okay...

no need to give more examples because we

all know now animals I can write Meat, I

can write Egg, Ok...

and again many examples and the best

part is we all know this Okay, but now

there is a difference between the plants

and animals we all know this one also

like plants are the one which prepare

their own food and so these are known as

Autotrophs Okay, Now What is the meaning

of Autotrophs? Those organism, those

organism which prepare their own food

okay, so those organisms

which prepare their own food are known

as what Autotrophs and in this the

example is only plants okay, only plants

are the one who follows autotrophic code

of nutrition and they form glucose. Glucose

is formed okay. Now if I say that even

animals all the animals depend on plants

will it be correct or no I am saying

directly or indirectly all the animals

depend upon the plants okay. If I take

the example of the Cow, Goat obviously

these are Herbivorous Animals and so

these are dependent on plants, but if I

take the example of the Lion, Tiger also

even the Lions and the Tigers what they eat? they eat Deer, Okay and Deer in course depends

upon the plants so the major source of

the production of the food is Plants. Okay.

So, first of all From where we are

getting food? What are the sources of

getting food for us? So it can be two

sources rather

it can be plants or it can be animals. When we talk about the plants, we have got plenty

N number of examples Say Wheat, Maize, Jowar, Barley, Pea. Ok, many examples we have got.

Even for the animals we have got many

examples, Meat, Egg, Chicken. Okay... Now, but

all animals directly or indirectly they

depend upon the plants for their food

Okay, the plants are the only organisms in this universe who can prepare their

own food. The preparation of food which

preparation that means the process by

which the plants make their own food is

known as photosynthesis and how does

this reaction like how does this process

takes place in the presence of what in

the presence of like carbon dioxide in

the presence of H2O like these things

are utilized and then sunlight okay and

chlorophyl and then what has been made

here food is made Okay, So these and even

I should write here O2

Okay. So again it is not a balanced

equation it doesn't state an equation

like by using carbon dioxide and water

in presence of sunlight and chlorophyll

what is formed glucose can be formed and

oxygen is a byproduct

it is removed out which is used by us

okay so main thing Autotrophs only the

plants are the one which can prepare

their own food so like what has to be

done like how we can get more food we

will learn in the further topics now see

when we talk about the early man okay

when we talk about the

early ancient man, he used to be a wanderer okay,

What's the meaning of wanderer? He used

to lead a nomadic life, he used to live a

nomadic life. Nomadic life means what?

He used to feed upon raw materials like raw

food, raw vegetable okay and he used to

lead his life.

Then slowly what happened

even he started growing crops okay so

first of all the early man was what, he

was wanderer, or he used to live nomadic

life. What is the meaning of nomadic? The one who keep on shifting from one place to

another. They used to eat raw food, raw

vegetables first of all and slowly they

started growing crops okay and slowly

they started growing crops in this way

in this way we saw we

we can say that the first time the

agriculture came into existence okay so

first of all the early men used to live

a wanderer and a nomadic life and slowly

they learn to grow crops and they

started doing agriculture okay now as I

told you like everybody, everything, every

living thing depends upon the plants for

their food okay so what has to be done

to get new like a better crops more food

you know actually our population ranks

second in the world just imagine that so

huge population it's so difficult if the

crop production is not good if the crop

which we are getting getting the food

which we have is not good is not enough

okay so scientists keep on doing some

researchers or I can say trying to bring

some revolution in the field of the

agriculture okay now say for example

First can be the Green Revolution. Now,

What's the meaning of Green Revolution?

The food grain okay, the food grain was

increased. Means total focus was given that

how the food grains can be increased

okay. This is known as what?

Green Revolution like total emphasis was

given how the food grains the management

of the food, how the the total

focus was given that how the food the

production of the grains could be

increased okay. Now second can be

Blue Revolution. Yeah, I can understand

like it is not related with this

agriculture but still production of

production of fish was focussed, like new

techniques new experiments new research

program was conducted that how the

production of fishes can be increased.

Now third is White Revolution okay. Now,

What is the meaning of White Revolution?

The production of it, deals with the

production of Milk okay, it deals with the

production of the Milk. Now, Yellow

Revolution means what? The production of oil

seeds was focused on okay and under

trial is Golden Revolution and this one

is for the Production of Pulses Okay.

What I mean to explain is that just for

the sake to give the proper food, more

enough food to the population of India,

And to give better food scientists keep

on researching, keep on bringing some new

things okay. So that the quality as well

as the quantity of the food can be

improved. Say for example when we talk about

Green Revolution more focus was given on

the how the food grain, the production of

food grain can be increased okay. Now,

Second is Blue Revolution which

includes the production of the Fishes,

Like how the production of fishes can

be increased?

Similarly White Revolution, a very famous

revolution okay... It deals with all the

how the production of Milk can be

increased okay, how Milk Products, Dairy

Products can be focused or can be

increased production can be increased

then Yellow Oil Seeds...Which are the

oil seeds? Like say... Sunflower,

Soyabean, Mustard,  How the

production of these seeds can be

increased so that the production of oil

so that the production of the oil can

increase okay. Now Golden is all about

Pulses it is under trial like how the

pulses the production of the pulses can

be increased so scientists keep on doing

certain experiments to bring the things

as a Revolution. Now, I use the

term Agriculture okay. I said Agriculture.

Now, What is the meaning of Agriculture?

How can we define the Agriculture?

So, What is Agriculture? The process

of growing crops, on a large scale is

known as Agriculture okay. So, the whole chapter will be focused on the

Agriculture. What is agriculture? The

process of growing crops on a large

scale is known as Agriculture. So that means, when the crops are grown on the large

scale huge quantity then this known as what? Agriculture. Now before starting with

Agriculture I would just like to inform

you also about the type or we can see

the branches of Agriculture okay. So like

you know why I am telling this like when

we are reading agriculture, also we

should know like what can be the

different branches okay. So first of all

is Horticulture okay. Now what is the

meaning of Horticulture? It is the branch

of Agriculture which deals, okay with the

production and the management okay.

It deals with the, it is a Branch of

Agriculture, It is a Branch of

Agriculture which deals with what? It deals

with the production and management of

Fruits and Flowers. Now, I am telling about

the what is Agriculture we all know,

The process of growing crops on a large

scale is known as agriculture. Now, I am

talking about the Branches of

Agriculture so to start with the first

is Horticulture, you all might have heard

somewhere Horticulture it is the Branch

of Agriculture which deals with the

Production and Management of Fruits and

Flowers. Now, Fruits where, obviously in the orchards and

Flowers in the gardens ok. So

it this is a branch with deals with the

Fruits and Fowers a very important

Branch of Agriculture. Now Second is

Olericulture. Now, this Olericulture

it deals ok with the Production and

Management of Vegetables. It deals with the Production and the Management of the

Vegetables. Now,Third one is Aquaculture.

Okay, Now third one is Aquaculture, means it deals with the Aquatic Plants okay.

Means all the development and the management of the aquatic plants and even animals

also okay. Now fourth one is Agronomy.

Okay now, Fourth one is Agronomy, it deals

with the development management of the

Crops and Soil okay. So, the Branches of

Agriculture, there are few more branches

but this one is quite enough for you all. So

Horticulture deals with the production of

Fruits and Flowers, Olericulture deals with

the production and management of

Vegetables. Aquaculture means it deals

with, it is one of the other with a

development the more production of the

Aquatic Plants and rather Animals also,

Now Agronomy, it deals how to manage, the management of crops and the better like

how the quality of the soil can be

improved all these things are dealt with

Agronomy okay.

Just have a glance, Early man was a wanderer,

he was a nomadic, he used to lead a rather

nomadic life, then somehow he learned to

grow the crops and so the agriculture

came into existence. Then Scientists

started with sudden revolution so that

the crop productions or one particular

crop can increased Green Food Grains,

Blue Fish, White as a color as it suggests

Milk, Yellow with the Oil Seeds, Golden

with the Pulses okay. Now the next verse

Agriculture, What is Agriculture? To grow

the or the process of growing crops on

large scale is known as Agriculture. These are the

Branches of Agriculture. Horticulture,

Olericulture, Aquaculture and Agronomy.

Okay, So just now we have discussed about

this. So now, I am seeing one word over

here Crops okay. Now when I say crops,

What is exactly the meaning of crop is?

Okay so, just we will have a look upon

What the crops are? Okay so, when we say


like see... Crops can be of many types.

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